Immediate Influence

Reinforcing interactions

Parent construct: Caring parents

Through interaction, parents can help teach their children how to meet life’s challenges with “thoughtfulness, confidence, purpose, responsibility, empathy, and hope.”1 Positive daily conversations can promote and enhance feeling of closeness between parents and adolescents.2 Parents should give consistent positive reinforcement for desired behaviors and also consistently give moderate consequences for those behaviors that are not desired.

Interventions that have included a parent training component have found reductions in risk behaviors and improvements in academic outcomes.3 4

Related Interventions



  1. Brooks, R. (2005). The power of parenting. In S. Goldstein & R. Brooks (Eds.), Handbook of resilience in children (pp. 297-314). New York: Kluwer/Plenum.  

  2. Laursen, B., & Collins, W. A. (2004). Parent-child communication during adolescence. In A. L. Vangelistsi (Ed.), Handbook of family communication (pp. 333-348). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.  

  3. Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., Kosterman, R., Abbott, R., & Hill, K. G. (1999). Preventing adolescent health-risk behaviors by strengthening protection during childhood. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 153(3), 226-234.  

  4. Hawkins, J. D., Kosterman, R., Catalano, R. F., Hill, K. G., & Abbott, R. D. (2005). Promoting positive adult functioning through social development intervention in childhood: long-term effects from the Seattle Social Development Project. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 159(1), 25-31.