Immediate Influence

Exposure to violence, drug use, crime

Parent construct: Peer influences

Community violence is a problem that many neighborhoods are trying to change.1 This change is important for early adolescents because exposure to violence, drug use and crime threatens adolescent wellbeing. Reducing youth exposure to violence, drug use and crime has a positive effect on adolescent youth development. Neighborhood organizations have been shown to reduce youth exposure to violence.2,3,4


  1. Buka, S.W., Stichick, T.L., Birdthistle, I., & Earls, F.J. (2001). Youth exposure to violence: Prevalence, risks, and consequences. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 71, 298–310.  

  2. Gardner, M., Roth, J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2008). Adolescents’ participation in organized activities and developmental success two and eight years after high school: Do sponsorship, duration, and intensity matter? Developmental Psychology, 44, 813–840.  

  3. Lerner, R.M., Lerner, J.V., Almerigi, J.B., Theokas, C., Phelps, E., Gestsdottir, S. et al. (2005). Positive youth development, participation in community youth development programs, and community contributions of fifth-grade adolescents: Findings from the first wave of the 4-H study of positive youth development. Journal of Early Adolescence, 25, 17–71.  

  4. Roth, J., Brooks-Gunn, J., Murray, L., & Foster, W. (1998). Promoting healthy adolescents: Synthesis of youth development program evaluations. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 8(4), 423–459.