Immediate Influence

Effective Schools

Effective schools can ensure that most young people who live in poverty develop the cognitive, social, and emotional regulation skills that they need to succeed in life. Teaching and the curriculum quality are significant influences on student learning. Unqualified teachers, ineffective teaching practices, and low-quality curriculum lead to academic failure,1,2,3 which will prevent young people from obtaining jobs that pay a good wage for doing satisfying work.4 Teaching students the academic and social skills necessary to succeed in school and in life also requires that schools address social and emotional concerns that could interfere with learning and classroom management.5 Finally, parent involvement in their children’s education is also extremely important for student learning.6,7,8


Related Interventions




  1. Ball, D.L. (2000). Bridging practices: Intertwining content and pedagogy in teaching and learning to teach. Journal of Teacher Education, 51, 241-247.  

  2. Darling-Hamond, L. (2000). Teacher Quality and student academic achievement: A review of state policy evidence. Education Policy Archives, 8 (1), 1-44.  

  3. Shulman, L. S. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform. Harvard Educational Review, 57, 1– 22.  

  4. Jimerson, S. R. (1999). On the failure of failure: Examining the association between early grade retention and education and employment outcomes during late adolescence. Journal Of School Psychology, 37(3), 243-272.  

  5. Adelman, H. S. & Taylor, L. (1999). Mental health in schools and system restructuring. Clinical Psychology Review, 19 (2), 137–163.  

  6. Rutter, M. & Maughan, B. (2002) School effectiveness findings 1979–2002. Journal of School Psychology, 40 (6), 451 – 475.  

  7. Slavin, R. E. (1984). Students motivating students to excel: Cooperative incentives, cooperative tasks, and student achievement. The Elementary School Journal, 85(1), 53-63.  

  8. Slavin, R. E. (1994). Quality, appropriateness, incentive, and time: A model of instructional effectiveness. International Journal of Educational Research, 21(2), 141-157.