Outcomes & Influences

In anticipation of the PN initiative, the PNRC developed a model of the cognitive, social-emotional, behavioral, and health outcomes at each stage of development (from pregnancy through emerging adulthood) that are critical to subsequent successful development. It then thoroughly reviewed the empirical evidence to identify the immediate and background influences that most affect these outcomes at each phase of development. The immediate influences include the quality of parenting, the quality of the school, and peer relations. The background influences are poverty, social cohesion in the neighborhoods, and the physical environment of neighborhood. At the same time, separate teams of scientists have identified evidence-based programs, curricula, policies, and practices that have been shown to benefit schools, families, and neighborhoods.