- Early Childhood
- Early Adolescence
- Emerging Adulthood
Moderately low, but will require media leverage (but not necessarily purchased media).
|+||Be more socially competent|
|+||Better family functioning|
|+||Increased academic achievement|
|–||Less negative peer engagement|
|–||Reduced disruptive behavior|
|–||Reduce ADHD, aggression, and problem behaviors|
|–||Less overt and covert aggression|
How To Do It
Self-modeling for behavior change features children, youth, or adults as the “virtual heroes” of change in drawings, pictures, words, and/or video. The self-modeling can be achieved simply by using first person pronoun or the name of the person, which can be amplified by drawings, photos or videos.
How It Works
Adults read stories with pictures or illustrations to children featuring the child’s first name, or children watch videos of themselves that have been edited to show coping behaviors or acquisition of desired behaviors. Adults may read materials with first person pronoun, rather than third or second person pronoun; or adults may see edited videos of themselves doing the task in a coping way or even watch from a first-person video perspective.
Using Self-Modeling to Get Things Going in Community Settings
Local community groups can sponsor authors and illustrators to create special self-modeling books to promote early literacy, social skills, prevention skills, parenting skills, etc. These materials must follow solid research guidelines on their construction. The material can be widely promoted and adopted by families, schools, and others, as community trials have shown. [53-56]
Each self-modeling protocol must have clear units of behavior change and competencies, not abstractions. Typically, immediate or very quick behaviors (e.g., a particular skill) will change or improve.
Here are the basic steps for this evidence-based kernel:
The behavior to be changed must be clearly defined and measurable, and the sequence of behaviors to change must be very well understood.
Materials need to be constructed following clear guidelines established in research. 
The materials need to be pre-tested for change in an interrupted time series design to identified problems or changes.
Social marketing, testimonials, and perceived moral good must be developed for this
Celebrations, challenges and public commitments facilitate the adoption, implementation and maintenance of the strategies.
Performance and Impact
Increases academic engagement, attention, social competence, recall and long term memory; improves behavior; reduces dangerous behavior, health problems. [1-55]